C- Computer programming language-field of study

Computer software and programming language
C- Computer programming language-field of study

C- Computer programming language-field of study

After reading this tutorial  ,  you will be able to :

      >> Define software and programming language
      >> Have knowledge about type of software and programming language
      >> Have knowledge about advantage and disadvantage of different programming language

Software

Wikipedia describe software as " Computer software also called a program or simply software is any set of instructions that directs a computer to perform specific tasks or operations " .In simple word software is a set of coded commands or programs that tells a computer what tasks to perform.It consists of computer programs, libraries and related non-executable data (such as online documentation or digital media)

Types of Software

System Software

 Software that directly operates the computer hardware, to provide basic functionality needed by users and other software, and to provide a platform for running application software.It's main purpose is to help run the computer system .It controls all the parts of the computer system . Without system software computer system can not perform it's task . It includes
  1. Operating System :

      They primary purpose of the os is to act as an interface between the computer and user.OS are essential collections of software that manage resources and provides common services for other software that runs "on top" of them. Supervisory programs, boot loaders, shells and window systems are core parts of operating systems.In general sense , it can be said that the operating system is the overall in-charge of the whole computer.e.g: DOS , Window , Linux etc
  2. Device driver etc


  • Software types
    Software types

  • Application Software

    Application software, or simply applications, are often called productivity programs or end-user programs because they enable the user to complete tasks such as creating documents, spreadsheets, databases, and publications, doing online research, sending email, designing graphics, running businesses, and even playing games! A sub-class of computer software which directly employs the capabilities of a computer to a task that user wishes to perform is called application software . Their capabilities ranges from entertainment field 
    to official tasks such as producing bills in office . They are specially designed and developed for end users .E.g:Microsoft Offices , games etc.It is classified into following category:
    1. Tailored Software :

        Developed for solving particular problems only.
    2. Packaged Software :

      Different kinds of programs related focus application are combined to form packaged .For example : MS-Word
    3. Utility Software :

      Special types of application software which helps us to fine tune the performance of computer , prevent unwanted actions or perform system related task such as checking for virus and removing virus etc.


    Programming Language

    Wikipedia describes programming language as  " A programming language is a formal constructed language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer"  . It is the communication language between computer and user.

    Classification of Programming language

    1. Low-level language :

      Low-level language is a programming language in which each statement or instruction is directly translated into single machine code ,,Generally this refers to either machine code or assembly language. The word " low " refers to the small or nonexistent amount of abstraction between the language and machine language; because of this, low-level languages are sometimes described as being " close to the hardware " It's type are:

      1. Machine-level language/First Generation Language   :

        It is a language that computer directly understand . In other words , it is sequence of instruction written in form of binary numbers .
      2. machine level language advantage and disadvantage
        machine level language advantage and disadvantage
      3. Assembly Language / Second Generation Language ( 2GL ) :

        Assembly language is the symbolic representation or mnemonics of machine level language .The codes written in assembly language must be translated into machine level language before execution and assembler is used for this translation process.
      4. assembly language advantage and disadvantage
        assembly language advantage and disadvantage
    2. High Level Language :

    3. High level language is a programming language that is more user friendly , to some extent platform-independent and abstract from low level computer processor operations such as memory access . High level languages are easier to read .High level languages are machine independent and are problem-oriented.

       Advantages :

    • Easy to use 
    • Machine independent
    • Easy to detect error
    • Easy and fast development of software

    Classification of high level language :



    1. Procedure Oriented Language / Third Generation Language ( 3GL ) :
      Procedural language is the most common high-level language in which one or more Procedural language that perform some complete function are grouped together into a program procedure .It allows the program to be broken into small part. Eg : COBOL , FORTRAN , PASCAL etc
    2. Problem Oriented Languages / Fourth Generation Language ( 4GL ) :
      They are designed to solve specific problems or develop specific applications by enabling the user to describe what they want rather than step by step procedure for getting there . Database is the example of fourth generation language.
    3. Natural Languages / Fifth Generation Languages ( 5GL ) :
      Natural languages are those  which we use in our daily life . They are still in the development stage .A fifth generation programming language (abbreviated as 5GL) is a programming language based on solving using constraints given to the program, rather than using an algorithm written by a programmer.

    SUMMARY :

    >>Set of instruction that direct computer to do user defined task is called software

    >>There are two type of software 1)system software 2)Application software

    >> Operating system is the communication medium between computer and user

    >> Programming language is a formal constructed language to instruct computer

    >> Machine codes look like 01010001010.

    >>High-level language are easier to read and understand


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